Why is My Bread Hard After Cooling?

Freshly baked bread is delightful and loved by many. However, homemade bread can sometimes become hard and dry after cooling, which can be frustrating, especially after putting in so much effort to make the perfect loaf.

In this article, we will explore some common reasons why bread turns hard after cooling and offer tips to help you keep your bread soft and tasty.

Bread becomes hard after cooling due to a process called retrogradation. The crystalline starch particles in the dough absorb water and swell. During baking, the heat causes the starch granules to gelatinize and the water to evaporate, resulting in a firm, yet still moist structure. 

As the bread cools, some of the water in the bread migrates to the surface and evaporates, leaving behind a more concentrated solution of sugars and starches in the crumb. The starch molecules then begin to reform crystalline structures, known as retrograded starch, which causes the bread to become harder and staler over time.

What Causes Bread to Dry Out and Harden?

During baking, bread dough loses moisture content due to the evaporation of water. Several factors influence the rate of water loss:

Bread shape: Bread with a high ratio of crust to crumb lose more moisture and tend to be drier, such as long and thin baguettes. Loaves with a lower crust-to-crumb ratio have less moisture loss.

Bread composition: The ingredients and proportions used in making the bread can affect its texture during cooling. Adding fats, eggs, milk, and sugar to the dough can also delay bread hardening.

Baking conditions: Bread is prepared faster at higher temperatures, which allows them to retain more moisture. Bread baked in a bread pan or Dutch oven loses less water than those baked on a baking sheet. However, if the bread is baked too long, it can lose too much moisture and become dry and hard. On the other hand, if the temperature is too low, the bread may become undercooked and dense.


Sourdough bread: Bread made with sourdough stays fresh longer due to its acidity. Well-made sourdough bread typically has its best taste and texture after cooling down and resting for a few hours. The cooling process is crucial for achieving the desired texture and flavor of sourdough bread, as it allows the bread to settle and the flavors to develop fully.

Overall, bread hardening is a natural process, but the factors listed above can help to slow it down. By understanding these factors, bakers can adjust their recipes and baking techniques to produce bread with the desired texture.

Why does bread go stale?

Tips for Prolonging the Shelf Life of Bread

The staling process in bread cannot be avoided, but its occurrence can be delayed. Staling occurs faster in dry conditions such as a refrigerator, which can dry it out and make it stale faster. To slow down the staling process, it is best to keep the bread in a cool and dry place, such as a bread box, pantry, or cupboard. Bread should be wrapped in plastic foil or cloth to prevent it from drying out.

Keeping bread in the fridge is not recommended, as it accelerates the staling process. When bread is stored in the fridge, the cool temperature causes the starch molecules in the bread to retrograde, meaning they reorganize and crystallize. This process leads to the bread becoming firm and stale, and when it is exposed to moisture, the starch molecules absorb it and cause the bread to become soggy.

If you don’t plan on eating your bread within a few days, consider freezing it for longer storage. Wrap it tightly in plastic wrap or aluminum foil before placing it in the freezer. To defrost, let it thaw at room temperature or in the refrigerator. However, keep in mind that with frozen bread, the staling process will begin as soon as it is thawed, and its quality will not be the same as that of fresh bread.

If you decide to freeze bread, consider slicing it first. This will make it easier to defrost and use only the amount you need, without having to thaw the whole loaf.


A creative and tasty way to use stale bread is to make bread pudding.

Refreshing Bread by Reheating

It is important to note that reheated bread only stays fresh and soft for a short period of time. When reheated, the crystallized starch re-gelatinizes, and the bread softens again. However, once the bread cools down, it hardens quickly. Despite this, reheating bread is a great way to enjoy it again when it has become stale or cold. Here are some techniques:

  1. Oven Method: Preheat your oven to 350°F (175°C). Place the bread on a baking sheet or directly on the oven rack and heat for 10-15 minutes until warm and crusty.
  2. Microwave Method: Place the slices of stale bread on a plate and heat them for 30 seconds to refresh and soften them.
  3. Skillet Method: Heat a skillet over medium heat and place the bread directly on it. Cook for 1-2 minutes on each side until it is warm and slightly crispy.
  4. Toaster Method: Slice the bread and cook it in a toaster until it is warm and crispy.

Remember that the reheating time and temperature may vary depending on the type and thickness of the bread. It is best to check the bread frequently while reheating to avoid overcooking or burning it.

Final Thoughts

In conclusion, there are several reasons why bread may become hard after cooling, such as overbaking the bread and not allowing it to cool properly. Additionally, it is crucial to allow the bread to cool down completely before slicing it. Cutting into warm bread can cause it to lose moisture and become hard. By following these tips, you can enjoy soft and delicious bread every time.



My name is Debora, the founder of My Delicious Sweets, and a qualified confectioner with broad experience in the confectionery industry. On my blog, I will share important, interesting, and fun facts about food, along with some of my favorite recipes.

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